Video surveillance systems and registration systems key events at controlled facilities
Integrated intelligent video surveillance systems
Video surveillance systems perform a wide range of tasks, but the main one is the task of monitoring the security of objects, controlling the penetration of unauthorized persons into the protected area, as well as ensuring the safety of certain material assets. The maximum efficiency of security systems in general is achieved by integrating a video surveillance system with related security systems. Such systems include management and access control systems (ACS), face and license plate recognition systems, perimeter security systems, fire alarms and warning systems.
Requirements for video surveillance system and security concept
In the case when increased requirements are imposed on the protection of an object, it is necessary to decide on the choice of a video surveillance system - analog or digital. If you need to recognize objects in detail, provide a secure encrypted connection, remote access, etc., then the IP system has significant advantages. Before embarking on a project to build a video surveillance system at an object, it is necessary to formulate its main tasks and determine their priority, that is, to develop a “security concept” for the following purposes:
- identification and analysis of potential threats;
- determining the degree of necessary effectiveness of security systems for each of the zones;
- selection of the system on the basis of which the project will be implemented (for example, an analog system or a digital one);
- determining the need for scaling or upgrading (for example, the use of FOCL lays a significant margin in the bandwidth of the network cable infrastructure).
Video surveillance system and their components
The infrastructure of the video surveillance system is built on the basis of the following basic components:
- surveillance cameras and their accessories (analogue and digital video cameras, for outdoor or indoor surveillance, protective covers, IR spotlights, brackets and swivel mechanisms);< /li>
- cable network (both coaxial cables for analog video surveillance systems and twisted pair cables for ip video surveillance are used, in addition, fiber optic and wireless networks can be used);
- computer active equipment (video recorders, video servers - devices for recording, processing and storing information, video monitors, camera control panels, intercoms and intercoms);
- software (programs are used to output the video stream to monitors, process and record it, as well as software that provides special video signal processing (for example, face or car number recognition) and integration with other security structures) ;
- power supplies (providing current and emergency uninterruptible power supply to all equipment).
To ensure the greatest efficiency of protection, the territory is divided into controlled zones: surveillance zones; control zones; protection zones; protection zones. In the surveillance zone, the video surveillance operator, using one or two video monitors and several cameras, performs simple monitoring of the situation. Video information from the control zones is automatically recorded on a special video recording device and played back as needed for retrospective monitoring of the situation at the protected facility. In security zones, monitoring, control and automatic detection of an intruder or any other undesirable phenomenon, which manifests itself in a change in the image coming from the camera in the monitored zone, is carried out. For this purpose, single- and multi-channel motion detectors are used. The fact of detection is confirmed by the issuance of an alarm signal using security annunciators. Protection zones include various security alarms, access control and management systems (ACS), surveillance and security posts, etc. and are controlled by multifunctional programmable controllers, personal computers, and specialized software. All components are closely interconnected and provide the most rational distribution of alarm information within the infrastructure: for example, additional lighting automatically turns on in accordance with an alarm signal, and video surveillance starts recording from several cameras from different angles.
The main types of video surveillance systems
Video surveillance systems are mainly divided into analog, digital and IP video surveillance. Analog systems use the traditional connection method (coaxial cable) and are recorded on video cassettes. The technology is low cost, easy to set up and maintain, and requires almost no software. In some cases, it provides good monitoring in low light conditions. As a rule, it is used on small objects with a small protection zone. Digital systems are characterized by wide technical capabilities. It is possible to use analog cameras. IP video surveillance, despite the higher cost, has many advantages, opportunities for development and expansion of the functionality of the structure. The main advantages of digital video surveillance systems: connection via Ethernet - twisted pair cable - no need to digitize the video signal; high quality video signal - the ability to use high-resolution cameras and, accordingly, the use of technologies such as recognition of various objects (license plate, faces, fire, smoke, etc.); secure connection - the ability to encode the signal; remote monitoring - the ability to output a video stream to a remote resource or to a page on the Internet (subject to high-speed Internet access); integration with other systems - simplifies the use of wireless and fiber networks